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Analyzing My Favorite Piece of Animation: Tigger by Milt Kahl

Sometimes when I’m animating, I recharge my creative batteries by watching some of my favorite scenes or pieces of animation. There’s a handful of animated pieces that I watch again and again, but only one that I always return to without fail. It blows me away every time I see it, and upon each viewing, I always seem to discover something new. After every viewing, it makes me strive harder and harder to become a better animator.

No surprise that this scene from Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day (1968) is a Milt Kahl scene. I may be one of the very few people who has had the gall to say something remotely negative about Kahl’s animation in the past, but I still think all the admiration for him and his work is completely justified. He could handle anything, and make it look and move beautifully. It’s a shame he wasn’t given more assignments like this one, because I feel that his more cartoon-oriented animation really stands out as some of his best.

While the entire four-minute sequence of Tigger in Pooh’s house is wonderful (great personality animation, dialogue, pacing, etc.), it’s the shot of Tigger bouncing around Pooh that stands out for me. The reason I love that scene so much is that it perfectly encapsulates all twelve principles of animation. In about 7 seconds, each principle is flawlessly showcased, some multiple times, and some intertwining and overlapping one another. As broad and over the top as it is, there’s layer upon layer of intricate elements that make the scene work.

For starters, watch when Tigger first begins bouncing:

There’s little to no anticipation in his legs, but instead the anticipation is shown in the movement of his head going down before the take off. The tilt of his head, in relation to his arms, legs, ears and whiskers as he first jumps show a great use of arcs. Also notice the successive breaking of the joints on Tigger’s arms, from his shoulders to his elbows to his wrists, and the drag on his fingertips.

As he bounces in place, you can really feel the energy transferring through his body, from his head down to his tail and right back up to his head again, much like a wave action. The folds and wrinkles in his body as he squashes down not only tell us that Tigger is a well-worn toy with loose stuffing, but how much force and weight that Tigger is exerting with each bounce.

Now, Tigger begins to bounce in a circle around Pooh: 

This is why Tigger’s stripes play such an integral role in his design. The stripes sell the idea that Tigger is not a flat drawing, but a three-dimensional living creature. His stripes wrap around the forms of his body and give the illusion of volume. So when Tigger is bouncing around Pooh, those stripes make it clear that Tigger’s body is turning away from us in perspective. Also notice the overlapping action on Tigger’s tail, and how it bends and swings at the kinked parts.

Tigger then jumps up and spins on his tail:

There’s so much going on in this one-second action. Tigger’s torso is twisting and contorting, his top half slightly delayed than his bottom half. Like before, his arms and legs following arcs, and his hands, ears and whiskers are dragging behind. And while all this is going on, he’s squashing and stretching on every bounce until finally easing into his final pose before making physical contact with Pooh and charging offscreen.

And throughout that entire scene, on every bounce, footstep and contact, Tigger is hitting every single beat in the song. Each of Kahl’s key poses are appealing, with clear staging and strong silhouettes. It’s almost contradictory how Tigger moves. While he’s galumphing around the screen like a roughhouse, there’s a certain level of grace in his movements. And both Tigger and Pooh’s personalities are easily distinguishable, Tigger being confident and boisterous and Pooh being underplayed and submissive. Overall, a tour de force of animation.

Coincidently, Kahl was also animating Shere Kahn in The Jungle Book around the same time. They’re both tigers (Tigger loosely so), but look how drastically different in approach and execution they are from each other. Shere Kahn is restrained and more subtle—built and functioning like a real tiger, while Tigger is so full of energy and enthusiasm that he’s practically bursting at the seams, and is a completely graphic design. Compare them to Kahl’s caricatured tiger from the Goofy short Tiger Trouble twenty years earlier and you have some sense of how broad Kahl’s abilities were as an animator.

I would’ve loved to know Kahl’s opinion about his own work on Tigger. I know there’s plenty of information floating around about how he felt animating Medusa, Shere Kahn, the Brers and all of his human characters, but barely anything about his work on Tigger. If anyone has any insight about this, please share!

For those that want a closer look at this scene, here’s a video of it slowed down 500% with annotations:

  • Noah

    Also notice how you can tell what he’s singing even with no volume.

  • Elana Pritchard

    Thanks for sharing that

  • Jay Pennington

    …and it’s on Ones, which helps a great deal.

    • Jules

      Yes but if any other animator had animated this scene, it wouldn’t have contained half the energy that Kahl packs into the proceedings. Every single key drawing in the best Milt Kahl scenes is a show-stopper and none are particularly simple poses to draw. He never took the easy way out and that’s part of what defined his standard.

  • David

    Milt Kahl is the best. If I could do half of what he does, I’d be set for life.

  • Bravo on the article! I love news about our studios and features as much as the next person, but articles like these really allow me to stop and appreciate the work and talent.

  • Mike Scott

    What a great post. More like it please!

  • jonhanson

    Love this, great stuff! So glad you hired Michael!

  • Pock C

    Thank you so much for this post !

  • peteykins

    I, too, would like to see more posts like this. Well done!

  • Floyd Norman

    You can imagine how I felt when I received my first scenes from Milt Kahl on “Sword in the Stone” back in the early sixties. Especially the scenes with Madam Mim. I starting flipping the stuff and said – Holy Crap! The man was amazing.

  • Tim Reckart

    Great post, just wanted to join the chorus asking for more like this!

  • Larry Ruppel

    What a great post- lets have some more animation analysis from time to time.
    Thank you Michael for the truly excellent article!

  • MaskedManAICN

    I’m going to mangle a story here, so bear with me. I remember taking a class at the Animation Guild (years back) taught by one of Milt Kahl’s assistants, Bud I believe. He recalled how Milt hated drawing all of Tigger’s strips. So for fun Bud did some animation of Tigger removing his strips, like taking off a shirt. When he showed it to Milt, he thought it was a hoot, then he questioned how Bud had time to animate it when he was suppose to be cleaning-up drawings- ha! Great stuff :)

  • Joshua

    You’re right, the stripes really sell solidity, as did Shere Kahns. It must have been a pain to do all those indidual stripes but it looks excellent!

  • hizzle

    absolutely need more articles like this!

  • FakeNina

    Or, to summarize, he always seems bigger because of his bounces.

  • David Nethery

    Exactly. This again makes the case that the term “2D” is not a good descriptor of classic hand-drawn animation such as this because the intention was to give the illusion of the characters occupying real space. As Michael said: “The stripes sell the idea that Tigger is not a flat drawing, but a
    three-dimensional living creature. His stripes wrap around the forms of
    his body and give the illusion of volume. So when Tigger is bouncing
    around Pooh, those stripes make it clear that Tigger’s body is turning
    away from us in perspective.”

    • Daniel

      everything projected on a flat screen is 2D animation.. that includes CG and stop motion.. the end result is always a 2D graphic impact

  • Always loved Tigger. Great to learn some of why that is.