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How Filmmakers Use Unscripted Audio in Animation: A Survey From “Moonbird” to “Waltz with Bashir”

One of the better-known shorts made by John and Faith Hubley is Moonbird, from 1959. This film came about when the Hubleys made a secret recording of their two sons one night, playing a game in which they pretended to be hunting for the elusive Moonbird. The result was a soundtrack with a complete narrative, courtesy of the two children; the Hubleys and their studio then visualised the story to create the film.

It is surprising how well Moonbird works, considering that its story is simply two kids making things up as they go along. The personalities of the children come through very strongly and much of the recorded dialogue is inherently funny, as when the younger boy tries to recite “Hey Diddle Diddle” but has trouble remembering past the second word.

Moonbird was followed by the 1967 film Windy Day, based on the same concept but using the voices of the Hubleys’ two daughters. This short is much looser, with a transformative element as the two characters morph from one identity to another. Instead of a single narrative, the children deliver a free-flowing conversation which makes several twists: The two girls start by playing at being a knight and a princess, and later play at being animals; between these sessions they discuss birth, adulthood, marriage and death in the half-grasped manner of children.

Windy Day was shown at the 1968 Cambridge Animation Festival; amongst the people who saw it were producer Colin Thomas and animator William Mather.

“We were blown away by the use of raw unpolished sound with a highly controlled medium like animation”, said Mather in an interview I conducted with him in 2011. In 1975 the two put together a pilot film entitled Audition, based around a recording of Mather’s son talking to an organ player as he auditioned for the role of a choirboy.

The film is very different to Hubley’s shorts. Aside from a very brief sequence in which the boy imagines the organ turning into a monster, it does not take place in a world of childhood fantasy: Its aim is instead to recreate the conversation in more straightforward cartoon terms.

The Hubleys sought to create fantasy films when they made Moonbird and Windy Day, and turned to the taproot of so much fantasy: the imaginations of children. By contrast, Mather and Thomas created a film which was closer to documentary. It is worth noting that Thomas was a documentary filmmaker, and that BBC Bristol – the branch for which the two men made their pilot – has a strong documentary tradition.

The pilot led to Animated Conversations, a six-part series produced in the late-1970s by various directors. Mather contributed Hangovers, based on a recording of a barmaid and her customers, but the best-known shorts for this series were made by Aardman founders Peter Lord and David Sproxton.

The two Aardman shorts take quite different approaches. Down and Out is a literalistic portrayal of an elderly man being turned away from a hostel which – unlike Mather’s shorts – lacks any humor; its emphasis is instead on pathos. Confessions of a Foyer Girl, on the other hand, plays its material for laughs. A young cinema employee discussing the banal details of her day-to-day life is contrasted with the glamorous and exciting world of the movies.

Lord and Sproxton’s work on Animated Conversations prompted Channel 4 to commission its own series of animation based on natural dialogue, this time made entirely by Aardman: Late Edition, Sales Pitch, On Probation, Early Bird and Palmy Day. As before, some of these went for wacky comedy, while others opted for melancholy tones.

Aardman’s subsequent work in this format includes Creature Comforts by Nick Park. As well as ranking as the single most famous example of the approach, it is one of the more playful in using its soundtrack. As the film is framed as a series of short interviews with various characters, Park was able to home in on the soundbites with the most comic potential. The earlier shorts built themselves around large chunks of undigested conversation, but the whole point of Creature Comforts is that the interviewees are quoted completely out of context.

Creature Comforts became an entire franchise, and in is now the key example of what is, today, a full-fledged genre of animation.

Sometimes the approach can serve a practical use. Animation students are often assigned the task of working to found soundtracks as lipsync exercises. “The Trouble with Love and Sex,” a 2011 episode of the BBC documentary series Wonderland, focused on people undergoing counselling; when it ran into the problem that these people were not comfortable being filmed, it simply used their voices, the visuals being animated by Jonathan Hodgson.

Meanwhile, other animators returned to the daring ethos of the Hubley shorts. Chris Landreth’s Ryan plays with intertextuality, using animation to illustrate interviews with and about animator Ryan Larkin. Sylvie Bringas and Orly Yadin’s’s Silence presents a child’s eye view of the Holocaust, alternating between harsh, woodblock-like sequences for the camp scenes and a softer, more childlike style for the postwar sequences.

There are three general approaches taken by these films. The first is a literalistic portrayal of the conversation, as with the melancholy Down and Out, the lighthearted Late Edition and the harrowing Waltz with Bashir (the last of these being the only feature-length animation of this type that I am aware of.) The second approach creates comedy by placing ordinary dialogue into an unusual situation, as with Creature Comforts.

Finally, the third approach uses animation to illustrate the more subjective aspects of the soundtrack, usually by attempting to recreate the mental state of the speaker. Examples include Silence, Ryan, Marjut Rimminen’s Some Protection, Paul Vester’s Abductees and Andy Glynne’s Animated Minds.

Jan Svankmajer once remarked that “animators tend to construct a closed world for themselves, like pigeon fanciers or rabbit breeders.” When an animated film uses unscripted audio, what we see is pure fantasy, but what we hear is an actual moment in time—the closed world of animation is suddenly opened up to stark reality.

1.) Still from Moonbird
2.) Still from Windy Day
3.) Audition
4.) Still from Confessions of a Foyer Girl
5.) Still from Creature Comforts
6.) Clip from “The Trouble with Love and Sex”
7.) Still from Waltz with Bashir

  • Tim Hodge

    Great films. One of my favorites that use this technique is the Irish film “Give Up Yer Aul Sins” directed by Cathal Gaffney. Like Creature Comforts, they did a series of these shorts with school children retelling Bible stories.


    • Chris Sobieniak

      It was pretty convenient they had those old recordings to work from. It’s an interesting premise they use and for the stories the kids tell of what they know of the Bible.

  • Tim

    Great survey. I didn’t know that the Hubleys pioneered this approach. I love their films — Jerry Beck’s screening at Animation Block Party had a couple of them and I was totally swept up, especially by “The Hole.”

  • Benjamin Arthur

    Animating to unscripted audio is a really fun experience, you get all these natural stutters and awkward pauses, and it somehow ends up making the character so much more real. I was transfixed by the first Creature Comforts short, how simple and genuine these animals felt. Later I saw Moonbird, and it inspired me to dig up some old tapes of my brothers.

    I’d also include Waking Life in this category, since it gave me that same feeling of genuine audio animated, even through it was rotoscoped.

  • Dre V. Sanchez

    Dunno how you can forget the Rauch Bros.’ Story Corp. work…

  • Ken

    Don’t forget Dr Katz, Professional Therapist: great semi-improvizational comedy, even if squigglevision was a bit annoying.


    Don’t forget portions of Fritz!

    • Keen Bean

      Could you tell me more about the animation process to Fritz:The Cat? I loved that movie so much and would love to hear anything you know!

  • Gijs Grob

    I always loved the Dexter’s Laboratory episode Dexter and Computress Get Mandark! Told by a six-year old boy. Also very nice is Never Like the First Time! (2006), a Swedish series about people’s first sex experience, some very nasty, others very delicate.

    • Chris Sobieniak

      That was an interesting experiment there. I still wonder what led to that idea to get a kid to do that? It’s always interesting going behind the scenes on these productions to know how it all came down.

  • Chris Sobieniak

    That later series after “Animated Conversations” (originally for the BBC) that Channel Four commissioned was called “Conversation Pieces”. It’s true the films in that lot do range from funny to serious, especially contrasting ones like “On Probation” with deals with a young man being denied a wish to do something from his superiors to “Palmy Days” where a deserted island provides a backdrop to a nostalgic chit-chat among elderly friends. I think the best of that was “Early Bird” with it’s morning radio DJ starting up the day and that morning’s broadcast.

    In 1989 a new series of films that “Creature Comforts” was part of was called “Lip Synch”, though unlike “Conversation Pieces”, not all the films made use of unscripted audio, only Nick Park’s “Creature Comforts” and Peter Lord’s “War Story” and “Going Equipped” made use of recorded interviews to craft their visual delights. Two others, “Ident” and “Next” went a different direction with their productions relying more of visuals over sound representation.

  • Wouter

    The short film ‘Getekende mensen’ (1983) by Dutch animator Harrie Geelen was based on the recordings of conversations with drugs addicts and their mothers.


  • Galata

    Good article,

    but: the voice of Tana Ross in Silence is not un-scripted: she first wrote a poem about her experience, then spent a lot of time re-writing the text (which was then re-edited a lot as well) with the directors.
    In a description of the process of making the film, Yadin says that “the voice-over had to be scripted as tightly as the visuals were storyboarded”.
    Also, in Waltz with bachir, the interviews were scripted (written after a first round of interviews) and rehearsed.